CLASSIFICATION OF BASE OILS
Industrial oils — Base oils
Industrial oils unite practically all known groups of oils bearing many names and used in industry and for any other technical use as a lubricant they are on organic and synthetic bases with the general name «Base oils«.
Motor oil is composed of base oil and additives.
The engine oil we use in our car is made up of base oil and additives. At the manufacturer’s plant, these components are mixed with each other when heated. Base oils and additives are selected in a special proportion to meet the required specifications, the requirements of the car manufacturer.
base oil groups.
Most often, base oils are divided into three groups: synthetics, semi-synthetics and mineral oil, but in fact there are five of these groups. According to the API classification of the American Petroleum Institute, these groups differ in three indicators: sulfur content, saturated hydrocarbon content and viscosity index.
Sulfur is corrosive to metal.
Sulfur is corrosive to metal; combustion of sulfur compounds produces acids that cause oxidation. The presence of sulfur negatively affects the properties of the base oil.
Saturated hydrocarbons — in comparison with unsaturated ones, they are more stable and oxidize more slowly. The higher their content, the slower the base oil oxidizes, ages and degrades.
• Viscosity index is a value that characterizes the dependence of oil viscosity on temperature. The viscosity of oils with a high viscosity index is less dependent on temperature, hence the low-temperature properties of the oil are significantly improved. Therefore, the higher the viscosity index of the oil, the better its properties.